Code Smells: Primitive Obsession

What is, why is bad and how to prevent

The Code Smells, a symptom of our weakness. Seems to be faster than do the good option, but as always, the bad code slow down the team and makes we going slower.

How to know if you are creating a Primitive Obsession Code Smell?

  • A primitive should never travel «naked» around the code.

When I say «naked» I mean: alone, opened, outside a class

Even for the most simple code or method we may think that would not be a problem to have this «data» traveling. But «the problem we don’t see today probably we will face tomorrow»

On this code, for instance, I decide to receive a Phone Number through a primitive variable as a parameter:

void AddPhone(string phoneNumber)
     //adding phone

We can predict a many of problems from this code as:

  • How we can insure that the phone number is valid?
  • What if our system works with multiple countries with different phone numbers formats?
  • What if we need to add more related information like zone code, country code and so on?
  • What if our system need to validate that phone number is mandatory?
  • What if we need to control phone types?

Primitive constants to control information is another case:

const int PHONE_TYPE_HOME = 1;

void AddPhone(string phoneNumber, int phoneType)
     //validating by phone type
     //adding phone

What is the problem?

The most important issues are about Consistency and Scalability. Why?

  • If we use primitives and need consistency, we’ll need to add validations all over the place to guarantee that the data is correct all the time
  • If we have more than one related data (like phoneNumber and phoneType) the consistency will be much more difficult to achieve (see Data Clumps code smell)
  • Using primitives we can’t scale, won’t be easy to add new features, validations or data.
  • Probably use primitives will drive us to add more and more


There is no problem at all by creating a small class, even with just one attribute, property or field. This will allow you to scale, reuse and keep your software good inside.

If we model the system using objects from beginning the cost will be minimal and we’ll have a scalable, consistent and healthy software.






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